The broad objective of this study is to examine the impact of formal education on community development in Oredo Local Government, Edo State. The study adopted the survey descriptive research design and with the aid of convenience sampling method, the researcher purposively selected one hundred and fifty (150) participant for the study. Self- structure questionnaire was issued to the respondent of which one hundred forty-one (141) was retrieved and validated for the study. Data was analyzed using simple percentage, presented in frequencies and tables. Hypothesis test was conducted using Chi-Square Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS v.23).
Findings of the study reveal that formal education has a significant impact on the socio-economic development of communities in Oredo Local Government. More so, formal education has a significant impact on human and infrastructural development of communities in Oredo Local Government. The study therefore recommends the Federal Government should endeavour to earmark 26% of the total budget for educational development as recommended in the United Nations Organization.
1.1 Background of the study
Education is one parameter to see the level of the economy in a country. Education is the most strategic element for the development of a nation (Shofwan & Kuntoro, 2014). Education makes people more advanced in thinking about their lives; with education, someone will obtain knowledge, skills and attitudes that make life more empowered in society. Education is believed to be the mother of knowledge; one is made to agree that a well-educated society is likely to solve its problems with ease. The role of education to humanity could not be exaggerated after all. This is because it is believed to be connect ‟drug” that is used to head the ailments in the society. Ashmore, M.C (1991) Postulated that Education is seen as instrument of development in all ramification of our life.
Education as part of the total educational system is the type of education that involves the acquisition of skills, ideas and management abilities necessary for job creation. Proper education can only be gotten from a formal school. A formal school is an institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students or pupils under the direction of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal education, which is commonly compulsory. In these systems, students‟ progress through a series of schools. The education pathway is divided into three categories: formal education, non-formal education and informal education. The formal education must accept education and use it in a useful way for teaching and influencing to achieve the social function active insertion of the human subject (Moldovan & Bocoş-Binţinţan, 2015).According to Bassey (2006) Formal education is a process of acculturation through which an individual is helped to develop his potentials and maximum activation in order to achieve self-fulfillment and happiness. The very purpose and main function of formal education is the development of an all-round and well-balanced personality of an individual.
Historically, Formal education known as western education was introduced in Nigeria in 19th century by the Christian missionaries. Although the missionaries had aims and purpose of introducing the education in the country. Odo, Ede and Ezike 2000’ 39) cited that return of slaves felt an urge to let their relation know of the western education they had tested while in slavery. The missionary education had the primary objective of converting Africans to Christianity in their religion. It was imperative for them to educate the Africans who could carry on the world of evangelization into the hinterland as they observed that most of the white could not do so due to the adverse whether and mosquito bites. They deemed it necessary to get interpreters such as catechist and people (Africans) who are capable of representing to their people (Africans). Several scholars and many authors has opined that education has effected human development and community development. Community development, in essence, is building a community through sustainable physical and non-physical fields.Sustainability, arguably, is one of the strongest principles of modern life. From an environmental point of view, society is increasingly adding value to sustainable technology, processes and products (Vivoda & Kemp, 2019). This relates to the physical field regarding the construction of facilities and infrastructure, such as highways, and so on. Whereas, it is related to the non-physical fields in the form of education, health, and economy for a better life. In carrying out community development, it is necessary to prioritise efforts, namely in the fields of education and the economy in improving people's welfare. According to Sudarsana (2016), If education can be delivered well, especially non-formal education, then it is possible that the community will be able to improve the economy and the welfare of society through non-formal education programs. Formal education helped in the abrogation of slavery and slave trade in Africa as well as, killing of twin children in the eastern Nigeria, (Manson 1992) cited also in the work, education helped the black race in South Africa to abolish apartheid policy in their country an obliterated colonialism in the whole world. According to organization for economic co-operation and development (OECD 1996), formal education has contributed in production in Denmark by helping the people with educational qualification and skills to produce more goods and services and enhance their knowledge of the Danish system of innovation. In drugs and medicine production addict countries like china, Japan, India, U.S.A etc formal education has a great effect on them as well as production of telecommunication equipment (Hansen, 1993). The researchers therefore want to find out how much the same formal education has effected the community development in Oredo Local Government, Edo State
1.2 Statement of the problem
Notably, More than half of the world‟s population and more than 70% of poor are to be found in the rural areas where hunger, illiteracy, and low school achievement are common. Education for a large number of people in rural areas is crucial for achieving sustainable development. The rural areas are seen as having greater challenges concerning educational development than the urban centers due to some socio-economic and institutional structures of the rural areas.
In Nigeria,the missionaries as well as our colonial masters came with their culture, Christianity and education cum style of civilization among other thins. These, especially culture Christianity and education brought far reaching changes into our lives. The first formal schools appeared to have connection with the priesthood institutions. This means that education was confined only to a small portion of population usually sons of nobility depending on the social stratification. The society being seen as an organized collectivity of people made up of network of interconnected groups, though different societies emerged with the school or other society for survival. The same is true with formal education for community development. Therefore education functions as a wheel change which can drive a society to a better tomorrow if all hands are on deck. While this seem to be true, many scholars has assert that the extent at which formal education has driven community development is low. Thus it is upon this premise that this study seeks to examine the impact of formal education on community development in Oredo Local Government, Edo State.
1.3 Objective of the study
The broad objective of this study is to examine the impact of formal education on community development in Oredo Local Government, Edo State. Specifically, the study will:
Determine if formal education has any significant impact on the socio-economic development of communities in Oredo Local Government.
Investigate the extent at which formal education has developed in Oredo Local Government.
Ascertain formal education has helped in human development of communities in Oredo Local Government.
Determining if there is enough infrastructural development in Oredo Local Government as a result of formal education.
1.4 Research Hypotheses
HO1: Formal education has no significant impact on the socio-economic development of communities in Oredo Local Government.
HO2: Formal education has no significant impact on human and infrastructural development of communities in Oredo Local Government.
1.5 Significance of the study
The significance of this study is to show how formal education can be used as a tool for development of an individual and how effective policies can be formulated and implemented in the educational sector. This study is designed to show the following significance. The research work when completed will be useful in bringing the gap in knowledge and help stakeholders to bring about new ideas that will facilitate the expansion of the footers of knowledge. It will also enhance policy makers on education to formulate effective policy. This research will be a useful point of reference and consultation to other students who may want to carry out a research on the same topic And finally, this research work when completed will make some useful recommendations that will help the educational sector to development and have impact on the development of an individual.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study borders on the impact of formal education on community development in Oredo Local Government, Edo State. This research will center on the activities related to the development of an individual through the process attaining formal education, with specific focus on the socio-economic, infrastructural and moral development of people of Oredo in Edo State.
1.7 Limitation of the study
Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scantiness of literature on formal education on community development. Thus much time and organization was required in sourcing for the materials and literature that will be relevant to study as well in the process of data collection. Also the study is limited in sample size and geography covering only student in residents of Oredo Local Government in Edo State. Therefore findings of this study cannot be used for generalization in other tertiary institution this therefore creates a gap for further studies.
1.8 Definition of terms
Education: Education is any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character, or physical ability of an individual. It is the process by which people learn.
Development: This refers to a state of total and complete transformation in any given ratifications either as an individual or as a society or state. Development as used in the research refers to a positive transformation in term of physical, mental, social, political, economic and administrative aspect of a given society.