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Chapter one

 1.1  Background of the Study

It is well documented that in public health terms chronic diseases have come to “matter” in developing countries, where they impose a sizeable and growing disease burden (WHO 2001). The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) project estimates that as of 2002, chronic or non-communicable conditions accounted for 54% of death in low and middle income countries compared with 36% attributed to communicable disease, material and perorated condition and nutritional deficiencies.

The WHO in June 2012 reported that between 56% and 19.4% of people world wide have disabilities. The number has increase since the 1990, when 10% of the world population and disability, and are expected to continue rising due to improvement in medical care that transformed previously total illness, such as cancer and HIV/AIDS into chronic conditions.

According to WHO (2002), chronic disease create large adverse and under appreciated economic effects of families communities and countries chronic diseases and poverty are interconnected in a vicious cycle. In almost all countries, it is the poorest people who are most at risk of developing chronic diseases and dying prematurely from them. Poor people are more vulnerable for several reasons to chronic illness, including greater exposure to risk and decreased access to health services. It is people and families who are already poor who are most likely to suffer because chronic diseases are likely to ruin family economic prospects.

Low income families can be divided into extreme poverty *when household meet basic need barely met) and relative poverty (in which household income is than a proportion of average national income). All of this status adversely affects health. The share of chronic condition is predicted to risk to 65% by 2030 (maters and lancer 2005).

Chronic diseases do not only affect the elderly and wealthy. Poor people and working age populations carry a significance share of the burden and risk factor of the chronic diseases. Chronic disease significantly affect economic for the individual, his or her family and general economy, affecting consumption and performance in the market.

As in other developing countries, chronic illness in Nigeria limits the young and old daily functional because of a chronic metal health or physical health condition. One member of a family with chronic illness influences the life of everyone in the family (WHO 2001). Chronic diseases are diseases of long duration and generally slow profession. According to world health organization (WHO 2005) Chronic illness such as heart diseases, stroke, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes are by far the leading cause of mortality in the world, representing 63% of all death out of 36 million people who died from chronic diseases in 2008 nine million were under 60 years and ninety percent of these premature death occurred in low and middle incomer countries.

While medical science has made great strides in developing effective treatment for the physical effect of this disease, many victims still face a staggering challenge to this mental and emotional health, one of the biggest fears is the uncertainty associate with chronic diseases. The condition may be parodied; lasting only a short while or it could be permanent gradually worsening overtime. Chronic illness can force many potentially stressful lifestyle changes, such as giving up cherished activities, adapting to new physical limitations and special needs and paying for what can be expensive medication and treatment services.

In Singapore for example, chronic diseases are significant cause of illness and death. Chronic diseases have serious impact on individuals and on society in general. They affect the quality of life of individuals and can be a financial burden on those who are affected. A number of risk factor related to an individual lifestyle can contribute to the development of chronic diseases (example cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory conditions, and diabetes). Risk factor such as unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and smoking are mostly modifiable.

Adapting healthy lifestyle practices such as a healthy diet, regular physical exercise and avoiding tobacco use can prevent or control the onset of debilitating and expensive complications of chronic diseases. This research is aimed at investigating the social and economic impact of chronic diseases on low income earning families in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

One of the major health challenges facing people today is chronic illness most especially among families. Chronic illness is considered to be a major problem in the Nigeria health system today the group this illness is likely to affect most is low income earning group.

Despite the unambiguous predominance of chronic disease in sheer epidemiological terms, the economic dominions of the growing diseases burden have not be toughly documented particularly in the lower income group of families this generate the interest of the researcher.

Having seen that chronic illness could affect mostly the low income group among the people of Nsit Ibom, this prompted the researchers to investigate the socio economic impact of this chronic illness on the low in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area.

1.3       Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the social and economic impact and consequences of chronic diseases on low income earning family in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area.

1.4       Objectives of the Study

The objectives of the study are:

    To find out if inferiority complex is among the social impact of chronic diseases on low income earning families in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area.

    To investigate if solution is among the social consequences of chronic disease on low income earning families in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area.

This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research


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